Kamis, 26 Oktober 2017

Materi Kelayakan Bisnis Antisipasi risiko



Lesson 11

Antisipasi risiko

Pengertian risiko
Manajemen risiko merupakan suatu usaha untuk mengetahui, menganalisis serta mengendalikan risiko dalam setiap kegiatan perusahaan dengan tujuan untuk memperoleh efektivitas dan efisiensi yang lebih tinggi.
Beberapa definisi risiko menurut vaughan (1978) sebagai berikut :
Risk is the chance of loss (risiko adalah suatu kemungkinan peluang kerugian)
Risk is the possibility of loss (risiko adalah kemungkinan kerugian)
Risk is the uncertainty (risiko adalah ketidakpastian)
                subjective uncertainty  -----  ex. Pengamat cuaca
                objective uncertainty -------- ex. Bom

Risk is the dispersion of actual from expected results (risiko adalah penyebaran hasil aktual dari hasil yang diharapkan )
Risk is the probability of any outcome different from the one expected (risiko adalah kemungkinan suatu hasil yang berbeda dengan hasil yang diharapkan)
                ex. Kematian dengan usia
Tipe risiko perusahaan

  • Risiko yang sulit dikendalikan manajemen perusahaan (risiko kebakaran, penipuan , dll)
  • Risiko yang dapat dikendalikan manajemen perusahaan (pada saat mendirikan pabrik baru, peluncuran produk baru, dll)
  • Risiko pada aspek sdm
  • Risiko pada top eksekutif dan pekerja inti
  • Risiko pada karyawan
  • Risiko dalam hubungan industri dan perselisihan
  • Risiko stres dan kesehatan yang buruk
  • Risiko bila tidak beretika
  • Risiko pada aspek keuangan
  • Risiko biaya produksi yang berlebihan
  • Risiko biaya perusahaan
  • Risiko utang
  • Risiko pinjaman yang berlebihan
  • Risiko pada aspek pemasaran
  • Risiko kebijakan pemerintah
  • Risiko perubahan permintaan di pasar
  • Risiko perang harga
  • Risiko pemalsuan/pembajakan
  • Risiko performance produk yang rendah
  • Risiko promosi yang kurang baik
  • Risiko kesalahan dalam merek
  • Risiko kegagalan dalam mengembangkan rpoduk baru
  • Risiko dalam masalah distribusi
  • Risiko pada aspek produksi
  • Risiko masalah pemasok
  • Risiko kerusakan kualitas
  • Risiko berkurangnya daya saing


Pengertian risiko
Risiko @ kesempatan timbulnya kerugian
Risiko @ probabilitas timbulnya kerugian
Risiko @ suatu ketidakpastian
Risiko @ penyimpangan aktual dari yang diharapkan
Risiko @ probabilitas suatu hasil akan berbeda dari yang diharapkan


Materi Penyusunan rencana kapasitas

Lesson 8

Penyusunan rencana kapasitas

Pengertian
Kapasitas : hasil produksi (output) maksimal dari sistem pada periode tertentu.
Kapasitas : ukuran kemampuan produktif suatu fasilitas.
Kapasitas efektif/utilisasi : kapasitas yang dapat diharapkan perusahaan untuk menghasilkan berbagai produk dengan metode penjadwalan, cara pemeliharaan, dan standar mutu tertentu.
Efisiensi : ukuran output aktual dihasilkan dengan kapasitas efektif.
Rated capacity : kapasitas yang dijadikan patokan yaitu ukuran kapasitas dengan fasilitas tertentu yang sudah digunakan secara maksimal.
Kapasitas efektif atau utilisasi efektif :
       
            kapasitas yang diharapkan
                kapasitas total

Efisiensi :

                output aktual
                kapasitas total

Rated capacity : kapasitas yang dijadikan patokan yaitu ukuran kapasitas dengan fasilitas tertentu yang sudah digunakan secara maksimal.

        kapasitas x pemanfaatan x efisiensi
Sebuah universitas sedang menghitung kapasitas optimum untuk memprediksi berapa jumlah mahasiswa baru yang akan diterima untuk tahun akademik 2010/2011. Universitas ini mempunyai gedung berlantai 21, masing-masing lantai mempunyai 7 ruang kuliah.tiap ruang kuliah tersedia 60 kursi kuliah. Sedangkan rata-rata pemanfaatan kursi kuliah per ruang adalah 50 kursi. Universitas tersebut menerapkan 5 hari kerja dalam seminggu. Dalam satu hari terdapat 5 shift, masing-masing 2 jam per shift. Tingkat efisiensi kapasitas sebesar 85% (kapasitas efektif = kapasitas yang diharapkan/kapasitas total). Bagian akademik memberikan informasi bahwa jumlah mahasiswa dalam semester terakhir ini sebanyak 15.000 mahasiswa yang aktif mengikuti kuliah.
    jika anda seorang konsultan manajemen, berapakah rated capasity yang akan anda sarankan kepada pihak manajemen universitas, supaya dapat mengambil keputusan berapa jumlah mahasiswa baru yang akan diterima pada tahun tersebut ?
Kapasitas =
    (jumlah lantai) x ( jumlah ruang) x (kapasitas ruang) x (pemanfaatan per hari)
    = (21 lantai) x (7 ruang) x (60 kursi) x (5 shift)
    = 26.460

Kapasitas efektif = (rata-rata pemanfaatan kursi per ruang) : (jumlah kursi tersedia)
    = 50 : 60
    = 0.8333
    = 83%

Rated capacity : (26.460) x (83%) x (85%)
               =  18.668 orang
   
    dengan demikian jumlah mahasiswa yang dapat diterima pada tahun 2010/2011 adalah  18.668 – 15.000 = 3.668 orang.
Sebuah home industry yang bergerak di bidang pembuatan boneka menargetkan untuk mempunyai 12 orang karyawan yang memproduksi boneka. 12 orang tersebut bisa membuat rata-rata 4 boneka dalam satu hari kerja dengan upah rp. 5.000,-/boneka, dengan hari kerja 5 hari/minggu.
Berapa kapasitas produksi per bulannya ?

Kapasitas produksi = 12 orang x 4 boneka x 5 hari x 4 minggu

= 960 boneka

Jumlah upah yang dikeluarkan adalah 960 x 5.000 = rp. 4.800.000,-
Linier programming
Pt. Sayang anak memproduksi 2 jenis mainan yang terbuat dari kayu yaitu boneka dan kerata api. Boneka dijual rp. 27.000 dan kereta api rp. 21.000. Boneka membutuhkan material kayu rp. 10.000 dan biaya tenaga kerja rp. 14.000. Sementara kereta api membutuhkan material kayu rp. 9.000 dan biaya tenaga kerja rp. 10.000. Untuk membuat mainan tersebut dibutuhkan 2 kelompok pekerja yaitu tenaga perkayuan dan pemolesan. Setiap boneka membutuhkan 2 jam pemolesan dan 1 jam pekerjaan kayu. Sedangkan kereta api membutuhkan 1 jam pemolesan dan 1 jam pekerjaan kayu. Meskipun dapat memenuhi kebutuhan material setiap minggunya, namun tenaga kerja yang tersedia hanya 100 jam untuk pemolesan dan 80 jam pekerjaan kayu.
Bagaimanakah formulasi untuk mengetahui berapa jumlah mainan masing-masing yang harus dibuat agar keuntungan yang diperoleh maksimum ?
X1 : banyaknya boneka yg dibuat
X2 : banyaknya kereta api yang dibuat

Pendapatan per minggu = 27x1 + 21x2
Biaya material = 10x1 + 9x2
Biaya tenaga kerja = 14x1 + 10x2

Jadi keuntungan yang diperoleh
= (27x1 + 21x2 )- [(10x1 + 9x2 )+(14x1 + 10x2)]
= (27x1 + 21x2 )- (24x1 + 19x2)
= 3x1 + 2x2

Jadi fungsi tujuannya adalah  z = 3x1 + 2x2
Pembatas/kendala :  2x1 +   x2 ≤ 100
                  x1 +   x2 ≤ 80
                  x1 ,   x2   ≥ 0


Materi Aspek teknis dan teknologis

Lesson 7

Aspek teknis dan teknologis

Rencana produk
  • Jenis produk
  • Bentuk
  • Warna
  • Ukuran
  • Tekstur
  • Bahan yg akan digunakan
Faktor2 yg perlu dipertimbangkan
  1. Nilai guna produk
  2. Kemungkinan perkembangan produk
  3. Fasilitas produksi yang diperlukan
  4. Fasilitas perusahaan
  5. Proyeksi permintaan produk
  6. Proyeksi penjualan produk
  7. Proyeksi penjualan perusahaan
  8. Potensi keuntungan produk
  9. Jalur distribusi
  10. Posisi persaingan
  11. Potensi peningkatan penjualan
  12. Siklus hidup produk
Faktor2 yg perlu dipertimbangkan dalam perancangan jasa
  1. Lini pelayanan yang ditawarkan
  2. Ketersediaan pelayanan
  3. Tingkat pelayanan
  4. Garis tunggu dan kapasitas pelayanan
  5. Diagram use case
  6. the coffe shop
  7. Pelanggan




Materi Aspek pasar dan pemasaran Lesson 2-3

Lesson 2-3

Aspek pasar dan pemasaran

Pasar

Pasar : titik pertemuan antara permintaan dan penawaran terhadap suatu jenis barang atau jasa sehingga tercapai kesepakatan dalam transaksi
Media tatap muka transaksi :
    - by phone (suara)
    - by code (penglihatan)
    - by internet (tulisan/catatan)

Bentuk pasar

Dari sisi produsen
    a. Pasar persaingan sempurna
    b. Pasar monopoli
    c. Pasar persaingan monopolistik

Dari sisi konsumen

    a. Pasar konsumen
    b. Pasar industri
    c. Pasar penjual kembali
    d. Pasar pemerintah

Faktor2 yang mempengaruhi permintaan pasar

Secara ekonomi makro :
  • Perubahan harga bbm
  • Nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar (kurs)
  • Diseminasi penduduk
  • Produk nasional bruto per kapita
  • Pola dan selesara konsumsi masyarakat
  • Kebijakan pemerintah dan negara lain
  • Permintaan konsumen negara lain
  • Terjadinya bencana/musibah

Secara ekonomi mikro :
  • Persaingan antar usaha sejenis
  • Persaingan dengan produk subtitusi
  • Biaya pemasaran
  • Daur hidup produk
  • Perubahan kebijakan perusahaan
  • Faktor2 yang mempengaruhi penawaran produk
  • Kuantitas dan kualitas produksi dalam negeri
  • Kuantitas dan kualitas produksi impor
  • Kemungkinan adanya peningkatan teknologi (intensifikasi) atau perluasan (ekstensifikasi) usaha sejenis di dalam negeri
  • Rencana penanaman modal dalam negeri
  • Kondisi alat, mesin dan peralatan produksi dalam negeri
Pemasaran
Pemasaran : mengantarkan barang dan jasa yang tepat, kepada orang yang tepat, di tempat yang tepat, pada waktu yang tepat, dengan harga yang tepat, serta dengan komunikasi dan promosi yang tepat.

Urgensi aspek pasar dan pemasaran
Apakah produk yang akan ditawarkan ke pasar masih marketable ?
Jika masih marketable, seberapa besar kemampuan pasar dalam menyerap produk tersebut ?
Bagaimana kecenderungan permintaan dan penawaran terhadap produk tersebut di waktu yang akan datang ?
Dimana posisi produk di tengah persaingan produk sejenis saat ini ?
Strategi pemasaran apa yang akan dilakukan agar produk dapat berhasil di pasar ?
Permintaan efektif dan permintaan potensial
Permintaan efektif : keinginan konsumen untuk membeli suatu produk atau jasa yang dihubungkan dengan kemampuan membayar.
Permintaan potensial :keseluruhan potensi pasar yang dapat menjadi calon konsumen terhadap suatu produk.
     permintaan yang menurut perkiraan akan menjadi permintaan efektif pada masa mendatang bila, kekuatan membeli bertambah besar, ada stimulasi kebutuhan, harga produk turun, pertambahan penduduk.
Proyeksi permintaan
Metode least square (kuadrat terkecil)
Metode forcasting
    - top-down forcasting
    - bottom-up forcasting
Jenis-jenis ramalan :
  • Ramalan ekonomi
  • Ramalan teknologi
  • Ramalan permintaan
   
Mengukur permintaan pasar saat ini
                q = n.p.q

Q        = total permintaan pasar
N        = jumlah pembeli di pasar
P        = harga rata-rata satuan
Q        = jumlah yang dibeli oleh rata-
           rata pembeli pertahun




Analisis regresi
                y = a + bx

A = (∑y)(∑x2) – (∑x)(∑xy)
            n ∑x2 – (∑x)2


B =      n∑xy– (∑x)(∑y)
            n ∑x2 – (∑x)2

Nilai penjualan (y) dan biaya (x) pt. Abc tahun 2000
Analisis deret waktu least square linier trend
                y = a + bt

A =   ∑y            b = ∑ty
           n                 t2
Data ganjil  nilai t    data genap    nilai t
        1        -2        1            -3
        2        -1        2            -1
        3         0        3              1
        4         1        4              3
        5         2
                 0                      0
Pt. Abc mempunyai data penjualan kuartalan tahun 2000 – 2003 sbb :


Materi Studi kelayakan bisnis



Lesson 1

Studi kelayakan bisnis

Pengertian bisnis & perusahaan

Bisnis : seluruh kegiatan yang diorganisasikan oleh orang2 yang berkecimpung di dalam bidang perniagaan dalam rangka memperbaiki standar serta kualitas hidup mereka
Ide sebagai sumber inspirasi
Ide/gagasan : kristalisasi jawaban sementara berupa keinginan/harapan yang muncul dari pikiran seseorang yang berhubungan dengan pemecahan suatu masalah
Harapan : keadaan yang ingin diperoleh/ diwujudkan di masa yang akan datang.
Masalah : gap (jarak) antara harapan/rencana yang diinginkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya.
Peluang ?
Belajar dari pengalaman sukses orang lain
Melihat objek dari segi fungsinya, bukan dari bentuk fisiknya

  • Mengubah hobi menjadi profesi
  • Benchmarking
  • Sumber ide
  • Membaca
  • Riset
  • Muhibah
  • Mengikuti atau mengunjungi pameran
  • Komunikasi dan diskusi
  • Pendidikan
  • Searching di internet


Proses ide menjadi
studi kelayakan
Formulasi ide
I = i + t + c

                                                                i = investasi
                                                                i = idea
                                                                t = time
                                                                c = cost

  • Aspek-aspek skb
  • Aspek pasar dan pemasaran
  • Aspek teknis dan teknolgis
  • Aspek manajemen & sumber daya manusia
  • Aspek hukum dan legalitas
  • Aspek keuangan dan ekonomi



Materi Aspek pasar dan pemasaran

CASE STUDY
“Rantai Markov”
ASPEK PASAR DAN PEMASARAN
Jika suatu produk telepon genggam merek “X” saat ini memiliki pangsa pasar 5%, bagaimanakah cara mengetahui pangsa pasar produk telepon genggam merek “X” tersebut untuk waktu yang akan datang ?
Buatlah questioner yang terdiri atas 3 bagian
•    Beberapa pertanyaan untuk mengetahui merek produk yang digunakan saat ini (digunakan untuk penentuan pangsa pasar), alasan pemakaian, hasil rincian serta daya tarik apa saja yang dimiliki produk itu.
•    Cukup satu pertanyaan untuk mengetahui apakah responden pernah menggunakan merek lain.
•    Beberapa pertanyaan yang sama dengan pertanyaan-pertanyaan pada bagian I, hanya disini digunakan bagi responden yang pernah menggunakan merek lain.
Questioner 1
•    Merek HP yang dipakai saat ini ?....
•    Alasan pertama kali memakai merek HP tersebut ?
    a. Coba-coba        b. Dipinjami teman
    c. Anjuran teman    d. Harganya murah
    e. Fiturnya lengkap    f. Desainnya bagus
3.     Pendapat anda setelah memakai HP merek tersebut ?
    a. Bagus            b. Memuaskan
    c. Mudah digunakan    d. Trendi
4.   Dari fiturnya, apa yang menjadi daya tariknya ?
    a. Chat        b. FB        c. Browsing   d. lain2
Questioner 2
•    Pernahkah anda memakai merek lain dalam satu tahun terakhir ini ?
    a. Pernah        b. Tidak Pernah
Questioner 3
•    Merek HP apa yang anda pakai sebelumnya ?
    a. Nokia        b. Soniericson   
    c. Samsung        d. Lainnya
•    Alasan anda ? ……………………..
•    Pendapat anda setelah memakai HP merek ini ?
    a. Bagus    b. Cukup        c. Kurang
4.    Dari fiturnya, apa yang menjadi daya tariknya ? …………………………………….
ANALISIS
Misalkan questioner tersebut telah diisi oleh 200 responden, dan setelah diolah diketahui sbb:
•    Pangsa pasar produk HP, misalnya :
    Nokia 61%, Soniericson 20%, Samsung 9,5%, dan lainnya 9,5%
•    Statistik lain yaitu :
    - Prosentase data HP
    - Alasan pemakaian tiap-tiap merek
    - Alasan Pemakaian secara total
3.    Diketahui pula perihal pola perpindahan merek dengan rantai Markov
Tabel ringkasan 2
Selanjutnya tabel untuk Brand Switching Pattern sebagai berikut :
Dengan teknik yang sama, dapat dihitung bagian pasar dari masing-masing merek untuk periode sesudahnya


Rabu, 25 Oktober 2017

Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1.    The Background of the Study
Literature is a vital instrument for expressing human experience verbally. Because it contains the record of people’s value, philosophy, history, and the writer’s experience as well. In short people we can say that literature contain the way of life. Terry Eaglet on in his book Literature Theory, states that “In Eighteenth century England, the concept of literature was not confined as it sometimes is today creative or imaginative writing, it means the whole body of value writing in society”. (1983:17).
For beginners, reading literary may be difficult to understand the real meaning of the study implicitly. This is because reading literature needs more special knowledge than simple one. Edgar E. Robert and Henry E. Jacobs in their book Literature and Introduction to Reading and Writing, state that “The study of literary work requires a larger investment of thought than a simple reading” (1986:2). The readers have to able to understand not only to explicit meaning of the passage of the story but also they have to able to get an overview of the work about what the author has implied in it. Edward Sapir in his book Language states “A work literary can never be translated. Nevertheless, literature does get it self translated” (1921:222).


There are many kinds of literary work such as drama, novel, poetry, and short story. All of them reflect human life. Reading novel as one of the literary works will give the readers a lot of knowledge and experiences. A novel contains the record of the value of the people, through problems, conflicts and their way of life. Understanding like literary work cannot be separated from the theme as an element or literature can be organized and unified from beginning to the end. Conflict is one of the elements of the story. When the story is created, it has many conflicts in it.
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s in the Great Gatsby tells about a story of the failure in the American dream, from the view that American political ideals conflict with the actual social conditions that exist. American democracy is based on the idea of equality among people, the truth is that social discrimination still exists and the divisions among classes cannot be overcome. Fitzgerald stresses the need for hope and dreams to give meaning and purpose of the man’s effort. Striving toward some ideal is the way by which man can feel a sense of involvement, a sense of his own identity, certainly, Gatsby, with his extraordinary gift of hope set against the empty existence of Tom and Daisy seems to achieve a heroic greatness. Fitzgerald goes on the state that the failure of hope and dreams, the failure of the American Dream itself is unavoidable not only because reality cannot up with ideals, but also because the ideals are in any case usually too fantastic to realize. The heroic presentation of Gatsby, therefore, should not be taken of fade value for we cannot overlook the fact


that Gatsby is naïve, impractical and over impossible, to repeat the past. There is something pitiful and absurd about the way he refuses to grow up.
    This different side of the American life that have been told in great Gatsby Novel was admired by a lot of people including the has an interesting setting and unusual conflict which is shown whole the story. She thinks from that interesting setting and unusual conflict she can draw a good theme which show the whole story, in great Gatsby novel.
    Another reason why the writer chose F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby as her study, first, the writer believes that the setting and conflicts have great influence to reveal the theme. Second, she really likes literature. According to her, literature one of the important elements in studying a language literature. And F. Scott Fitzgerald’s literature in title of Great Gatsby makes her interested in making its Analysis. Its conflict and its setting draw her to do the analysis. That is why she chooses the title AN ANALYSIS OF THEME THROUGH SETTING AND CONFLICTS IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALDS’S “ THE GREAT GATSBY “ as her thesis.

1.2.    Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the study above, the question can be formulated as follow :
1.    Where is the setting of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby depicted in the story?
2.    What is the significance of the conflicts in revealing the theme of the story?
3.    What is the theme of the story?

1.3.    Objective of the Study
    The objectives of the study are as follows :
1.    To depict the setting of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby
2.    To find out the significance of the conflicts to reveal the theme of the story
3.    To find out the theme of the story.

1.4.    Significance of the Study
By making analyzes on the study of setting and conflict in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is hoped that :
1.    It will give reader a better and deeper understanding of the theme through setting and conflicts of any literary works especially in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.
2.    It will enable to understand the message F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.

1.5.    Limitation of the Study
This “Skripsi” limits its analysis of a literary element to find out the theme in The Great Gatsby. In order to make it clear the writer limits her study on setting since these conflicts dominate the study. Moreover in this study the writer is going to observe conflicts presented as social, psychological, and physical conflicts. The discussion of this “Skripsi” is chiefly on studying of setting and conflicts to find theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby.

1.6.    Method of the Study
The literary appreciation is a qualitative study. Therefore, the writer will use the novel. Other selected references to accomplish this study and also as the guidelines for analyzing the stories. In short, it can be divided into some steps :
1.    Data
    Data collected here can be divided into two groups :
a.    Main Data
The writer uses the text to The Great Gatsby. This novel was published by words worth edition limited 8 b East street. This Novel has 115 pages.
b.    Additional Data
The additional data are taken from essays, books, other relating reference to accomplish this study.
2.    Method
    In the study, the writer will use there methods, they are :
    a.    Observation    :  Condition in order to collect the expected data from the novel.
    b.    Analysis    :  The writer analyzes the setting and conflict and describes the development of each conflicts to reveal the theme.
    c.    Concluding    :  The writer gets the conclusion that can bring the idea on the theme of story.

1.7.    Definition of the Key Term
    To avoid misunderstanding in the interpretation of the words used in this study, the writer will give definition of some term as follows :
Analysis    :  Analysis refers to the ability to break down the materials into its component parts, so that its organizational structures may be understood. This may include the identification of the pats, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principle involved (Dhoni, 1993:49).
Theme        :  Is the subject or main ideas in a folk, place of writing or work of art (Hornby, 200:1345).
Setting        :  Background of the story, where the story takes place.
Conflict    :  Is a situation in which people group are involved an a serious disagreement (Hornby,2000:258).

1.8.    Organization of the Study
The writer will organize the Skripsi into five chapters In chapter one the writer presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study, method of the study and definition of the key terms. While, chapter two deals with biography of the writer and the synopsis of the novel.
Chapter three will present review of related literature. Meanwhile, in chapter four, she will mention all of related theories and comments applied in her analysis. The last chapter five presents conclusion and suggestion.

















CHAPTER II
THE BIOGRAPHY OF THE F. SCOTT FITZGERALD AND THE SYNOPSIS
OF THE GREAT GATSBY

2.1.    The Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald
    F. Scott Fitzgerald was born on September 24,1896 in St. Paul Minnesota. Scott Fitzgerald was the son of Edward Fitzgerald, who worked for Proctor and Gamble and brought his family to Buffalo and Syracuse, New York for most of his son’s first decade.
    In 1989, while being assigned to camp Sheridan, near Montwentmery Alabama, his life changed forever. The 22 year-old Scott met and fell in love with Zelda Saidre. At first, Zelda, the youngest daughter of an Alabama Supreme Court judge, refused marriage until Scott could support her in manner to which she was accustomed. After being discharged and looking for a job with an advertising agency, in order to earn enough money, and finally he could marry Zelda.
    One week after his major works published, he and Zelda were married. It meant instant success for the author. They were similar to the life in 1920’s. Stories of their drinking, dancing, and extravagant lifestyle surround the couple. Over the years they traveled between the US and Europe (mainly France), becoming the lost generation of expatriates in Paris. In 1921, Zelda gave birth to the couple only child, a daughter named Frances Scott Fitzgerald.

    Why is The Great Gatsby such an essential twentieth century novel? After mixing reviews and a slow start in sales, Fitzgerald’s 1925 novel has moved to the centre of literary history, to the extent that too many literature readers, the modern American novel. This is a novel of glancing but point details, shards of recognition gradually placed together into a mosaic of American modernity. Fitzgerald was born into the American of the horse, gaslight and of electricity, cars and telephones.
    The 1920’s were a decade of great technological innovation and circulation, when many of the inventions of the previous thirty years finally achieved a common electric lighting; cars; telephone; the movies and photography.
    In the summer 1935, Fitzgerald left Baltimore for an extended visit in Asheville. He was concerned about his lungs, and the mountain area of western North Carolina was known for the treatment of tuberculosis. He moved into the Grove Park Inn, a plush resort hotel, where he intended to rest and write stories. There he met Laura Guthrie, a woman separated from her husband and working as a palmist for the hotel. She became his typist and companion for the summer. There was no romance between them, but they spent long evening together, during which Fitzgerald drank beer and talked about himself. Mrs. Guthrie had literary ambitions, and from June to September she kept a journal of her time spent with Fitzgerald. The journal includes an account of Fitzgerald’s summer affair with Beatrice Dance, a wealthy Texan staying at the Grove Park Inn, as well as literary advice on such topics as revision, process. In “A summer with F. Scott Fitzgerald“ (Lesquire, Desember 1969). Mrs. Guthrie, now Laura Guthrie Hearne, remembers asking Fitzgerald about his method of revising. He replied :
“Three revisions are absolutely necessary : First, the first draft the inspirational point, second, the cold going over, third, putting both in their proper balance.” (164).
It was also during that summer of 1935 that Fitzgerald met Tony Buttita, as aspiring writer and the owner of an Asheville bookstore. Like Mrs. Guthrie, Buttita kept a record of the conversations with Fitzgerald, which he published almost forty years later in after the Wanted Gay Times.
On April, 8 1936 Fitzgerald transferred his wife Zelda to Highland Hospital at Asheville. He moved into suite 441-443 0f the Grove Park Inn another summer. There he was close to Zelda, but he saw very little of her after he broke his shoulder in a July diving accident. It was a dark time for Fitzgerald. Besides his health problems and his worries over Zelda’s condition, he was concerned with rising debts and falling income. During this second summer at the Grove Park Inn, he fired a revolver in a suicide threat, after which the hotel refused to let him stay without a nurse. So, he was attended by Dorothy Richardson, whose chief duties were to provide him company and to try to keep him from drinking too much. In typical Fitzgerald fashion, he developed a friendship with miss Richardson and attempted to educate her, providing a reading list of works he felt it vital that any educated person be familiar with. Richardson hand written list of Fitzgerald was recommendations in the Brucolli Collection.
In July 1937, Fitzgerald went from Asheville to Hollywood, leaving Zelda at Highland Hospital while he tried to become a screenwriter. Zelda was in and out of treatment at Highland until she died in a fire at hospital on March 10, 1948. Fitzgerald came to be popularly regards as a man who had career ended on the twenties century.

2.2    The Synopsis of The Great Gatsby
    Reader is introduced to Nick Carraway, the narrator of the book. Nick talks about his Midwestern beginning and how he came to West Egg, Long Island to work in bonds. Nick was born in a big city in the Middle West. After the great war ended in 1918, he moved East to New York and entered the “bond business” learning about business. He had planned to stay in the East for several years. He arrived in New York, in spring 1922 settling on the low budged side of long in West Egg. Nick ranted a bungalow next door a mysterious wealthy man “Gatsby”. Shortly after arriving in New York, Nick was invented to dinner at the house of Tom and Daisy. Daisy was Nick’s cousin and she was getting married with Tom Buchanan. Tom led Nick into a backroom of the Buchanan house, where they found Daisy talking with her friend Jordan Baker, a haughty yet beauty young woman there and a professional athlete. By the time dinner was served on the porch, Tom got a private phone call. Jordan told Nick that the person on the phone was Tom’s other woman. Daisy was also aware that Tom was cheating on her, and Jordan told Nick that almost everyone knew about Tom’s affair. Jordan also asked Nick if he had met his neighbor Gatsby.           
Nick had not and but decided that he would like to. When Nick arrived home after the party he saw Gatsby, or who he felt was Gatsby, standing out on the grass. He intended to go introduce himself but decided against it thinking that Gatsby would prefer to be alone.
    Tom invited Nick out for an afternoon. On their way to the city they picked up Myrtle, Tom’s mistress. She was the wife of Wilson, a man who owned a garage along the highway. Nick mentioned how shameless.
    One summer evening Nick went to Gatsby’s house for the first time. He was invited by Gatsby’s chauffeur and it ended up being a very large and crowded event. He knew no one at first, but saw Jordan and stayed with her for the most of the evening. While he was there many guests talked about Gatsby. He was a very mysterious man to them and everyone had their speculations as to how he obtained his money. Some said he was a bootlegger, some said a spy during the war, and others thought that he had the look of someone who’s killed a man. While moving through the party Nick finally met Gatsby, although he wasn’t aware of it at first. They made small talk and found out that they had seen one another during the war. But their talk was short lived because Gatsby had business to attend. Jordan said that Gatsby was an Oxford man and Nick watched him curiously for the rest of the evening. He noted that Gatsby seemed detached and distant from almost everyone. Later in the evening Gatsby asked to speak to Jordan. When she was finished, Nick was still there and she told him that Gatsby had told her something amazing that she couldn’t talk about right now. But she asked Nick to look her up sometime. Nick did end up  calling on Jordan. They started to spend time with one another and he liked her company. But he said that he had to end his “tangle back home”, the engagement misunderstanding, before he could start a relationship.
    Nick went back to Gatsby’s for another party. Nick gave a detailed list of all of those in attendance and just what kind of people he thought they were. One morning Gatsby’s car pulled up in Nick’s driveway. Gatsby told Nick that they were going to have lunch together and Nick agreed. As they were driving Gatsby told Nick that he would like to dispel any myths that Nick might have heard about him. Gatsby said that he came from a wealthy family from the Midwest, San Francisco to be exact. He said that his parents died and left him a lot of money. After that, he went to war and lived in all of the great cities and later attended Oxford College. Although Nick was skeptical of this story, Gatsby showed him a medal he earned from the war and a picture of himself at Oxford. Gatsby also told Nick that he had a “big request” to make him but that Jordan Baker would talk to him of it later. Nick was confused, but Gatsby would speak no more of it. When they reached the city, Nick was introduced to Gatsby’s friend Meyer Wolfhound, who they dined with. After Meyer left, Gatsby told Nick that he was a gambler and the man who fixed the 1919 World Series. As they were talking about Meyer, Nick saw that Tom had also come to the restaurant. Nick thought that he would introduce the two men but when he turned around, Gatsby had disappeared.


After lunch, Nick went to meet Jordan for tea. She told him the story of how she got to know Daisy when they were both younger back in Lucasville. Daisy spent quite a bit of time with a young soldier in those days, and now Jordan realized that soldier was Jay Gatsby. But he had to go war and they lost contact and Daisy decided getting engaged to Tom. Jordan was in the wedding and the day before they were to be married, Daisy received a mysterious letter. After reading it she told Jordan that she wasn’t going to get married, but went through with it anyway. Soon after the honeymoon she and Tom were expecting a baby. But Daisy had forgotten all about Gatsby until she heard Jordan and Nick talking about him not long ago. Daisy asked about him and Jordan pieces together that he was the soldier who Daisy had spent so much time with. Nick pointed out what a coincidence it was for them to be living near one another now, Jordan said that it was anything but. Gatsby bought the house to be close to Daisy. This was where Nick fit in. Gatsby would like Nick to help him see Daisy again.
When Nick returned from the city that evening he found Gatsby admiring his house. Gatsby told him that he planed to invite Daisy over for tea. Gatsby tried to act casual but it was obvious he was excited. During their exchange Gatsby tried to offer Nick some kind of job, but Nick saw it only as a polite gesture and turned it down. The next day Nick invited Daisy to tea and told her not to bring Tom. Gatsby came over to inspect everything to made sure that the tea went perfectly. Daisy finally arrived and Nick went out to met her. When they returned inside Gatsby was nowhere

to be found. A moment later there was a knocking at the door and Gatsby walked in. He and Daisy looked at one another in awkward surprise. Nick tried to make the afternoon go smoothly but realized that the two would like to be alone. He went out to his porch to let them catch up. When he returned the two seem relaxed but entranced with one another. Gatsby invited them over to see his house. While walking over Nick asked Gatsby about how he made his money but he answered with a curt “that’s my business”. The group walked through and Gatsby tiered to impress Daisy with all of the possessions he had filled his house with. Nick, again realized that his presence was not needed, leaving the two alone.
    Reporter came to Gatsby’s home one day trying to learn about him since Gatsby had become a sort of celebrity. He asked questions about many of the myths surrounding Gatsby. But Nick gives the readers the true account of Gatsby’s life. Gatsby was born from James Gatz in North Dakota. His parents were poor farm people and to escape the blandness of his existence, Gatsby created a fantasy world. Part of this fantasy included the name Jay Gatsby. As a young man he worked along the shore of Lake Superior doing odd jobs. He tried a small college for a couple of weeks but quickly grew restless and went back to the shore. While walking the shoreline he spotted a yacht owned by the wealthy Dan Cody. He warned Cody that he might have sailing troubles. Cody took Gatsby under his wing. When Cody died Gatsby was supposed to get a large portion of his fortune but was tricked out of it.


But Gatsby had created a persona and found something that he wanted to achieve at all costs.
    After an absence of several weeks due to work, Nick went over to see Gatsby one Sunday afternoon. While there Tom Buchanan and two others arrived on horseback. Gatsby tried his hardest to be hospitable to the trio. They made an attempt to invite Gatsby with them somewhere, but when Gatsby went to get ready they left without him. At the next party Gatsby threw Tom and Daisy arrived. Tom immediately disliked the party and began to question how Gatsby came into so much money. Daisy also seemed to be unhappy at the party which frightened Gatsby. He told Nick that he would made things right with her and they would be able to go back to how they once were. After hearing this Nick tells the readers of an evening Gatsby and Daisy spent together in their youth. The moment was so perfect and beautiful to Gatsby that he had spent all of his time trying to recreate that moment. It was this recreation that he believed would made him happy.
    One day, Nick went to the Buchanan house. Gatsby, Jordan, Tom and Daisy were all there. As the group was talking, Daisy said that she loved Gatsby in front of Tom but he thought nothing of it. Being a hot and uncomfortable day, they all decided to go into the city to find something to do. Tom instated on trading cars with Gatsby for the drive into the city. So Gatsby and Daisy took Tom’s car while Tom drove with Nick and Jordan in Gatsby’s new yellow roadster. Tom stopped at Wilson’s garage to filled up the gas tank and spoke to Wilson. Wilson alluded to the idea that he thought his wife was having an affair and that she wanted to get some money to move out west. While this talk was going on Nick thought he saw Myrtle watching them from the window. The groups met up in the city and decided to get a hotel suite and made a few cold drinks. While there, Gatsby and Daisy began to act more shouting at them. As the fight went on Gatsby told Tom that Daisy had never loved Tom and had always been in love with him. Daisy quietly agreed. Tom, enraged, said that he had investigated Gatsby and found out that he earned his money through being a bootlegger. The argument died down, Gatsby and Daisy decided to leave in his car. The rest of the group quietly existed with Tom.
    Meanwhile Michael is, a  neighbor of Wilson’s stopped by to see him and found him very ill in his office. Wilson told him that he locked his wife up and that they would be leaving tomorrow. Wilson never told Michael is why they were leaving or why Myrtle was locked up. Michael is left Wilson alone. Later, he came out of his restaurant and heard Wilson and Myrtle fighting. During the fight Myrtle run into the road just as two cars were approaching in either direction. She was hit and killed but the car did not stop. It was later found out that the car was Gatsby’s and Daisy was driving it. Tom pulled up a little later when he saw all of the commotion around Wilson’s. Wilson believed that it was Tom who hit his wife since Tom was driving that car earlier in the day, but Tom assured him it wasn’t. when the group arrived back at Tom’s, Nick decided to wait outside for a cab. While waiting Gatsby appeared from behind a bush. Nick admitted that Daisy was driving the car. Nick asked Gatsby to come back with him but Gatsby wanted to wait outside the house to make sure that nothing happened to Daisy.
    Early the next morning Nick went over to check up on Gatsby. He had been at Daisy’s all night just watching to saw if she was safe. He and Nick stayed up talking about Gatsby’s past. Gatsby was being very honest with Nick and told him that Daisy was the first nice girl he had ever really met. He was in love with her and planned on marrying her but the war split them apart. When it was over he intended to go back and married her but ended up at Oxford instead. When he finally made it back to America and went to Lucasville, he couldn’t find Daisy. She was on her honeymoon with Tom Buchanan. Nick had to leave Gatsby to get to work. He was concerted about him, but Gatsby insisted that he would be fine. After Nick left Gatsby decided to go use his pool and relax.
    Nick told the readers about what happened at Wilson’s to start the chain of events that would occur. Michael was had stayed with Wilson to make sure that he was all right. Wilson told Michael was that someone killed Myrtle on purpose, whoever was having affair with her. Michael was thought it was all nonsense and tried to talk reasonably to Wilson. He ended up staying there until late. A man of Michael is recognized from the day of the accident offered to stay with Wilson. When Michael was returned, both Wilson and the man were gone. Wilson was looking for Gatsby. Someone had told him that Gatsby was involved. When Wilson finally found Gatsby’s home he shot Gatsby in his pool and finally killed himself as well.
   

Nick called Daisy’s house to speak to her but she and Tom had left without any way to be reached. Nick also tried to get in contact with Meyer Wolfsheim, but he could not. Wolfsheim sent a letter later saying that he could not come to Gatsby’s side. Shortly after Gatsby died, a few days later Henry Gatz, Gatsby’s father, came to the house. He had heard about Gatsby’s death in the paper and came at once.
    The day of the funeral Nick went into the city to see Wolfsheim. Nick had to force himself into Wolfsheim’s office, but Meyer refused to come to the funeral saying that he couldn’t get mixed up in another man’s death. When Nick returned to the house, he and Mr. Gatz talked about what Gatsby was like when he was younger. Gatz showed Nick a schedule that Gatsby wrote out when he was younger that showed a very driven, determined young Gatsby. The minister arrived at the house and seemed ready to start the funeral but Nick asked him to wait for more people to show up, but no one did. When the small group went to the cemetery another man ended up showing up for the service. He was a man who came to Gatsby’s party that summer and thought he should be there out of respect. A few days later Nick went to see Jordan and formally end things between them. She told him that she was engaged to another man and although not surprised, Nick pretended to be. Another afternoon Nick saw Tom on the street in the city. Nick was obviously disgusted with Tom and asked him what he said to Wilson. Nick had figured out that Tom was the one who told Wilson that it was Gatsby that was having an affair with his wife and who ran her down. Tom denied it but Nick was certain.
    Nick went back to his home one last time and decided that he didn’t want to live in the East anymore. He believed that he, and all of the others were not fit to live out in the East and that was why they were failed there.



















CHAPTER III
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

        In doing this “skripsi” the writer has based the study on the theories. This “skripsi” aims to analyze of theme through setting and conflicts based on same theories of literature.
3.1.     Theory of Theme
The theme of a work of literature is basic subject to study. Most of stories have theme, Laurance Perrinne, Structure, sound and Sense claims “theme of a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its controlling idea or its central insight.” It is unifying generalization about life stated or implied by the story. To drive the theme of a story we must ask “what its central purpose is; what view of live its supports or what insight into life it reveals” (1974: 112). Edgar V. Roberts and Henry Jacobs in their book, An introduction to Reading and Writing state “Theme refers to something laid down, a postulate, a central an unifying idea” (1986:333).
According to Robert Scholes in his book Element of Fiction: An Anthology claims, “theme is a favorite question. This interpretive aspect of literary analysis is the most difficult, we should say, for the reason that in order to attempt if we must not only look carefully at the work itself but also look away from the work toward the world of ideas and experiences” (1981 : 123).

There are two types of theme as proposed by Nurgiantoro. They are major theme of minor theme. The major theme is known as the dominant idea of story.
The theme of a work refers to central idea of the story Robert C. Polly in his book Outlooks Through Literature states that “theme is the basic idea of the story, the center of interest; what is story is about” (1968, p. I).
Determining the theme in a story is not an easy work this is because literature is a work of the imagination. The readers have to infer after reading the whole story in order to get a batter view about the work. A literary work requires interpretation to explore meaning and the theme as well. In this case the readers’ knowledge in literature become very important to support them to explore them meaning of the story.
The author may describe the idea implicitly in a story Maurice Beebe in his book Literary Symbolism, An Introduction To The Interpretation Of Literature states as follow; “The idea of a story is implicit in it, on the other hand, it is always ahead of the writer, like a form dimly discerned in the distance, he is working towards the idea” (1980, p. 53).
In this case the theme lead a story. Theme becomes central elements to control the story and develops the work meaningfully.
According to the writer, theme take the most important role in the story, because theme determine whole story in a literature. The author must determine theme first before they start to write a literature. The writer thinks without theme a story is nothing.
3.2.         Theory of Setting
        Theme of the setting, according to M.H. Abrams (1970: 157) states that “setting of a narrative or dramatic work is the general locale and the historical time in
which its action occurs; the setting of the episode or scene within a work is particular physical location in which it takes place.” Ali Fauzi (1996: 09) states that setting or situation is what gives background to the story. Setting gives reader information he needs for an intelligent reading of the story. The reader must known where the story is talking place, setting presents with tone or mood that hangs over the story. Tone is the situation of nature, object or place. Mood is the nuance of the mind, sad, happy, lamenting, miserable, grieving. There are two kinds of setting.
1.    Place where the story is taking place. This can be regional where the story happens is a certain region or certain region possesses it. Neutral it can also be where the story explains about something happening generally it can also be where the story concerns religious dogma, moral or ethics.
2.    Time is when the story is taking place (season, year, minutes, hour, day, month, week). It tells the reader something about the story as detailed as possible. Such as; lighting, sound, the interior of the room, scenery, clothes, background, religion, culture and education.
Modern psychology and sociology have made us acutely aware of the cultural, religious, ethnic, racial and family background that shape lives. A human being, these science tell us, does not exist apart from his environment, his “setting” anymore than a plant exist, apart from the soil that surround its roots (Jack Carpenter, 1970: 10).
    According to the writer, setting is an important element in a story-a story which consists of setting of place, setting of time and setting of situation. A story must have without setting. There won’t be a story without setting. Story is a representative of the real life. And as the writer sees life must consist of setting. The place where the life roled by. Time when the things happened. And the situation in the real life. So, it is impossible to separate the story from setting.

3.3.    Theory of Conflicts
Conflict is the essence of all stories. The conflict maybe one of man against nature, man against man, or, in the mind of the chief character, and man against himself (Graham Little, 1966: 83). As human beings, it is natural to have conflict with others in daily life as a reflection of human temperament. As social being, man has to make contact with other to fulfill his necessity, therefore conflict can happen because community consist of various people with their all kinds of personalities.
There are three kinds of conflicts in literary work. These conflicts are physical conflicts, social conflicts and psychological or internal conflicts. Physical conflicts happen when the man in the story against the nature or environment. This is also considered as an external conflict. For example the man have to survive in a cyclone. Social conflict emerges when man is in conflict with other man. It sometimes can be regarded as an external conflict. A boy who fights with his friend because of his friend has broken his toys. The psychological conflict as a conflict, which exist within the character himself. The girl who falling in love with a boy, but she does not have a brave to tell he felling to the boy, the girl undergone a psychological conflict. The conflict of the main character with other man, or with nature may be complicated by conflict, within himself. So, in the novel its be more than one kinds of conflict included the story. A story ordinary ends when its main conflict is resolved, that is, when one side or the other triumphs and the main character either succeeds of the fails. In some stories, how over, the conflict is left unresolved; just as in real life often have to definite conclusion (Perrine, 1968: 2). E.H. Jones Jr. in his book Outline Of Literature states that “conflict appeal to the emotions of the readers”. It may be physical, social or psychological, or it maybe combination of these (1968: 81).
In line with Jones, Little also divides conflicts into three categories. They “conflict man against nature, man against man, and man against himself” (1996:83). Meanwhile Stanton (1965: 16) divides conflict into “physical conflict, psychological conflict, external conflict and internal conflict.”
Conflict is very important because the conflict is able to make the readers feel excited. It also makes the readers involved emotionally in what happens in a story. In a story conflict begin with rising action which contest of contradiction to the character, which involved in the story. It is also called exciting forces. The peak the story called climax. In climax the main character make decisions to change the story more intents. The conflict enables the readers to keep reading the story and finding the conflict of story, so  they will be more curious what happen next until they finish reading and get resolution.

3.4.    The Relation between Theme, Setting and Conflicts.
A story must have all elements that provide a unity of the story. The theme as mentioned before, is a means to control the story’s unity elements of story, such as characterization, conflict, setting which are supporting the story and they contain the massage the theme conveys.
One way of approaching theme is by exploring the nature of the central conflict and its outcome. And sometimes the title will provide and important clue
(Perrine, 1970: 100). In the Great Gatsby the writer presents the conflict and setting to find out the theme. The conflicts are social conflict, psychological conflict, and physical conflict, and also relation theme and symbolical setting, particularly the actual geographical location.
    A story consist, of a lot of elements. such as setting, theme, conflict etc. and story cannot be separated from those elements. A of all the elements in a story always connect one to another. People can draw setting from a conflict, after determine is the conflict it will be easy to draw and determine a theme of a story. From the writer point of view it is shown that all elements in a story are connected and become a unity.


CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF THEME THROUGH SETTING
AND CONFLICTS IN F-SCOTT FITZGERALD’S
THE GREAT GATSBY

In this chapter the researcher would like to analyze the setting. This “skripsi” also aims at exploring the kind of conflict in this novel. Gatsby becomes the central of interest and has dominant role to make the story alive or as the main character. She would like to find out how Gatsby as main character to reveal the theme.
4.1.    The Setting Portrayed in the story
According to Mayang Hamdani, (1987 : 62) “setting is a place or same considered as the background of the novel are : place, time, language or culture. The setting of the Great Gatsby plays an important role in being up the idea of the story in this part she will explain about it, which was described by F. Scott Fitzgerald. He had adapted landscape to an American setting, creating of the modern and the mythic.
The story is narrated by Nick Caraway. He will confess that what fascinates him about New York, US where live in flickers of an image as movie film clatter through a projector. Where it functions of modernity, of the new and also his fascinates of modernity.
    Nick’s first person narration reveals the particular physical location takes place in Gatsby’s house.

4.1.1    Luxury house
Nick’s house was an eyesore because squeezed between two huge places Gatsby’s house the following citation is the evidence.
“I lived at west Egg, the – well, the less fashionable of the two, though this is a most superficial tag to express the bizarre and not a little sinister contrast between them. My  house was at the very tip of the egg, only fifty yards from the sound, and squeezed between two huge places that rented for twelve or fifteen thousand a season. The one on my right was a colossal affair by any standard. It was a factual imitation of some hotel De Ville in Normandy. With a tower on one side, spanking new under a thin beard of raw ivy, and marble swimming pool, and more than forty acres of lawn and garden. It was Gatsby’s mansion”.

(page 5)

The quotation shows that Gatsby lived at west Egg with a tower on one side marble swimming pool, more than forty acres of lawn and garden. It was Gatsby’s mansion.
4.1.2    Place to Extravaganza Parties
Gatsby like to make parties where man and girl came and went. Before the parties many servants repairing the ravages to make Gatsby’s enormous garden. We can see from the following quotation :
“There was music from my neighbor’s house through the summer nights. In his blue gardens men and girl came and went like months among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars. At high tide in the afternoon I watched his guest diving from the tower of his beach while his two motor boats slit the waters o the sound, drawing aquaplanes over cataracts of foam
on weekends his Roll-Royce became am omnibus, bearing parties to and from the city between nine I the morning and long past midnight, while his station wagon scampered liken a brisk yellow bug t meet all trains. And o Mondays eight servants, including an extra gardener, toilet all day with mops and scrubbing – brushes and hammers and garden-shears, repairing the ravages of the nigh before.
Every Friday five creates of oranges and lemons arrived from a frightener in New York. Every Monday these same oranges and lemons left his back door in a pyramid of purples halves there was a machine in the kitchen which could extract the juice of two hundred times by a butter’s thumb.

(page 26)

On weekends Gatsby’s house became an omnibus. Bearing parties. There was music, champagne, and a machine, which could extract juice for his guest.
In another party Gatsby’s house was liked the world’s fair when the party was blazing with light and the quest playing the game is proved by the following quotation :
“when I came home to west Egg that night I was afraid for a moment that my house was on fire. Two o’clock and the whole corner of the peninsula was blazing with light, which fell unreal on the shrubbery and made thin elongating gilts upon the road side wires Turning a corner, I saw that it was  Gatsby’s house, lit from tower to cellar.
    At first I taught it was another party, a wild rout that had revalued itself into ‘hide-and-seek’ or ‘sardines-in-the-bon’ with all the house thrown open to the game. But there wasn’t a sound. Only wind in the  trees, which blew the wires and made the lights go off hang on again as if the house had winked into the darkness. As my taxi groaned away I saw Gatsby walking towards me across his lawn.
“You place looks like the world’s fair”. Said
“Does it ? he turned his eyes towards it absently.

(Page 52)

The quotation above shows that Gatsby’s house is like the world’s fair lit from tower to cellar but no sound over there.
4.1.3    Place the Tragically Happen
    Gatsby was die the pool at his house and Wilson man’s killed him. And killed himself with his gun.
    “The chauffeur he was one of portages-hear the shots-afterwards he could only say that he hadn’t thought anything much about them. I drove from the station directly to Gatsby’s house and my rushing enviously up the front steps was the first thing that alarmed anyone. But they knew than, I firmly believe with scarcely a word said, four of us, the chauffeur, butter, gardener and I hurried down to the pool.
    There was a faint, barely perceptible movement of the water as the fresh flow from one and urged its way towards the drain at the other. With little ripples that were hardly the shadows of waves, the laden mattress moved irregularly down the pool. A small gust of wind that scarcely corrugated the surface was enough to disturb it’s accidental cause with its accidental burden. The touch of a cluster of leaves revolved it slowly, tracing, like the leg of transit, a thin red circle in the water.
    It was after we started with Gatsby towards the house that the gardener saw Wilson’s body a little way off in the grass, and the holocaust was complete.

                                                (Page 103)


    The chauffeur, butter, gardener and Nick saw Wilson shoot Gatsby in his pool and kills him self as well.

4.2        The Conflict
    Based on statement of the problem, the researcher will discuss the significance of the conflict in revealing the theme of the story. Conflict can be divided into tree years; the researcher finds that there are two conflicts in the story. The conflicts are conflicts of man against himself, and conflict a man against man. All the conflicts are discussed in detail and supported quotations taken from the novel.

4.2.1    Psychological Conflict
This conflict is conflict between Gatsby failed to understand Nick so he introduced himself to Nick again. Nick surprised because he knew Gatsby before, as it is citied in the following quotation
“For a moment he looked at me as if he failed to understand.
“I’m Gatsby”. He said suddenly
“What” I exclaimed “oh, I beg your pardon”.
I thought you knew, old sport. I’m afraid I’m not very good host.
He smiled understandingly-much more than understandingly.
It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced-or seemed to face-the whole eternal world for an instant, and than concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. It understood you just as far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe. In yourself, and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to Coney.
                                              (Page 32)
The quotation above shows that Gatsby is afraid he that is not very good host. He tries to give the best for the quests.
The decision is made after he overcomes a conflict within himself. Gatsby to forget something that make he was sadly. Gatsby’s problem is proved by the following quotation.
“I’ll tell you God’s truth”. His right hand suddenly ordered divine retribution to stand by. “I am the son of some wealthy people in the middle west-all dead now I was brought up in America but educated there for many years. It is a family tradition”.
He looked at me sideways-and I knew why Jordan Baker had believed he was lying. He hurried the phrase “educated at Oxford”. Or swallowed it, or chocked on I, as though it had bothered him before. And with this doubt, his whole statement feel to pieces, and I wondered if there wasn’t something a little sinister about him, after all.
‘what part of the Middle West?’ I inquired casually. ‘San Francisco’
‘I see’
‘My family all died and I came into good deal of many’
His voice was solemn, as if the memory of that sudden extinction of a clan still- hunted him.
For a moment I suspected that he was pulling my leg, but a glace at him convinced me otherwise.
    ‘After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe-Paris, Venice, Rome-collecting jewels, chiefly rubies, hunting big game, painting a little, things for my self only, and trying to forget something very sad that had happened to me long ago.

(page 42)


The quotation above shows that Gatsby was the son of wealthy people in the Middle West he was brought up in America but educated at Oxford but all his family died and he got much money. He was very sad and got resolution by the way go to abroad.
Nick invited Daisy to tea. Over there Gatsby meet again with Daisy, after 5 years he never meet Daisy. Gatsby’s feeling is proved by the following quotation :
“He followed me wildly into the kitchen, closed the door, and whispered ‘  oh, God’ in a miserable way
; what’s the matter?
‘This is a terrible mistake’. He said, shaking his head from side to side’. A terrible, terrible mistake.’
‘you’re just embarrassed, that’s all, and luckly I added :
   
‘Dany’s embarrassed too’.
        Just as muh as you are’.
‘don’t talk so loud’.
You are acting like a little boy’, I broke out impatiently ‘Not only that, but you’re rude. Dasy’s sitting in there all alone’.
He raised his hand to stop my words, looked at me with unforgettable reproach, and, opening the door cautiously, went back into the other room.


(page 56)

    The quotation above shows that Gatsby is embarrassed and he loves Daisy although she is married to Tom.
The affair between Gatsby and Daisy went on for weeks one morning after some tense filled conversation, including several sable challenger between Tom and Gatsby in Tom house. They all decided to drive into the city so Gatsby and Daisy took Tom’s car while Tom drove with Jordan and Nick in Gatsby’s new yellow roadster. Arriving in New York, Tom’s group met up with Gatsby and Daisy. They embroiled in a heated argument. The following citation is the evidence.
“I told you what’s been going on”. Said Gatsby ‘going on for five years-and you didn’t know.
Tom turned to Daisy sharply
‘You’re been seeing this fellow for five years?’
‘Not seeing,’ said Gatsby. ‘No, we couldn’t meet. But both of us loved each other all that time, old sport, and you didn’t know. I used to laugh sometimes’-but there was not laughter in his eyes – ‘to think that you didn’t know.’
‘Oh-that’s all’. Tom trapped tapped his tick fingers together like a clergyman and leaned back in his chair. ‘You’re crazy!’ he exploded. ‘I can’t speak about what happened five years ago because I didn’t know Daisy them- and I’ll be dammed it I see how you got within smile of her door. But all the rest of that’s a God-donned lie. Daisy loved me when she married me and she loves me now.’
‘No’. Said Gatsby, shaking his head.
‘She does, though. The trouble is that sometimes she gets foolish ideas in her head  and doesn’t know what she’s ding. He nodded sagely. ‘and what’s more I love Daisy too. Once a while I go off on a spree and make a fool of myself, but I always come back, and in my heard I love her all the time.’

(page 83-84)


In hard argument Gatsby said that Daisy never loved Tom and she would leaving him, because Daisy chose Gatsby. As it is cited in the novel :
“You don’t understand.’ Said Gatsby, with of touch of panic. You’re not going to take care of her anymore’.
‘I’m not ? Tom opened his eyes wide and laughed. He could offered to control himself now. ‘why is that?
‘Daisy’s leaving you’.
‘Non sense’
‘I am though, she said with a visible effort’.
‘She’s not though.’ She said with a visible effort.
‘She’s not leaving me! Tom’s word suddenly learned down over Gatsby. ‘Certainly not for a common swindler who’d have to steal the ring he put of her finger’.
    I won’t stand this!’ cried Daisy. ‘Oh, please let’s get out’.

(Page 85)
With this situation Daisy nervous and confused she drive Gatsby’s yellow car. Gatsby sat side Daisy. In front of Wilson’s gas station. The accident happened, Daisy hit Myrtle. Myrtle is Willons’s wife. She didn’t stop Gatsby car.
“Was Daisy driving?
‘Yes,’ he said after a moment, ‘but of course I’ll say I was’. You see when we left New York she was very nervous and she thought it would steady her to drive. And this woman rushed steady her to drive. And this woman rushed out at us just as we were passing a car coming the other way. It all happen0ed in a minute.

(Page 92)

Gatsby didn’t want Daisy got the problem, so Gatsby told to Nick that he Myrtle’s body with his car.

4.2.2    Social Conflict
Social conflict often happens in our daily life. It also happens in the novel the researcher discusses. In this case, she presents the conflict between Gatsby against another man.
All night after George Wilson at in state of shock, weeping. By morning he had determined to punish the driver of yellow car. He made his way to Tom’s house. But Tom, fearing for his own  life, lied, and told the distressed Wilson that Gatsby had been Myrtle’s secret lover and he was the owner of the yellow car.
Wilson finally found Gatsby’s home, with the revolver in his hand, he shoots Gatsby in his pool and killed himself as well.
“The chauffeur-he was one of portages-hear the shots-afterwards he could only say that he hadn’t thought anything much about them. I drove from the station directly to Gatsby’s house and my rushing anxiously up the front steps was the first thing that alarmed anyone. But they knew than, I firmly believe with scarcely a word said, four of us, the chauffeur, butter, gardener and I, hurried down to the pool.
There was a faint, barely perceptible movement of the water as the fresh flow from one and urged its way towards the drain at the other. With little ripples that were hardly the shadows of waves, the laden mattress moved irregularly down the pool. A small gust of wind that scarcely corrugated the surface was enough to disturb its accidental course with its accidental burden. The touch of a cluster of leaves revolved it slowly, tracing, like the leg of transit, a thin red circle in the water.


It was after we started with Gatsby towards the house that the gardener saw Wilson’s body a little way off in the grass, and the holocaust was complete.


(Page 103)
   

The researcher finds that Gatsby’s hope does not come into reality. He wants to win Daisy and comeback with him. The result of the conflict is Gatsby dies by Wilson with Tom, interpretation because Tom was disappointed by Daisy and her affair with Gatsby.

4.3    The Theme of The Gatsby
    According to Graham little, theme should be integrated and interrelated with all elements of literature such as character, setting, plot, symbol and style (1966:12). The existence of the conflict and setting in this story seem to give much contribution in revealing the central idea of the story.
    As the researcher has explained before, that all conflicts in the story is caused Gatsby it relates to his idealism, his faith in life’s possibilities. He believes that he can get friends, much money and love as long as he wants to struggle. But the fails to win Daisy’s heart.
    The setting, which is presented in this story, also gives contribution the revealing the theme. The modern New York is the both a technological and a dynamic culture space become a part of live.

    Based on discussion above it, can be concluded that the character’s conflict and setting have significant to the theme.
    The readers states that the theme of the novel “ great gatsby “ is a love story with world war in middle west as a setting of that novel. It was unusual theme. As one of modern literature, Great Gatsby is a very interesting novel to be read. In this novel Great Gatsby as the main character had made the story becomes great. The setting also build the theme if people read it in the beginning of the story, They will think that it is a heroic novel, but further they will know that it is a love story. A complicated love story after reading the novel people will see Gatsby’s effort to him daisy’s heart who has married to Tom. Gatsby do anything for his love but everything is going useless when he died before getting Daisy’s heart.
    Based on the discussion above, it can be concluded that the theme of the novel is a complicated love story with world war and modern middle west life as the setting.
From the description above, the researcher founds that there is a strong relationship between setting and conflict to the theme of the novel. Setting and conflict hold a very important elements in determining the theme of the story in example, if in the novel of Great Gatsby. The readers only found the conflict of the story that is a complicated love story between Gatsby and Daisy without knowing the setting, the readers will face difficulties in determining the theme. They will have a big question where is the conflict take place. In the other hand, if the readers only know the setting of the novel that is world war and modern middle west life without knowing the conflict of the novel, they will also found a big confuse ness. What had happen in world war and middle west life in the story. And of course they will not find an appropriate theme of the novel.



















CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1.    Conclusion
This chapter reports the finding of the analysis. The objective of the study is to reveal the theme through the study of setting and conflicts in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s the great Gatsby. This analysis is divided into three parts, firstly, the finding of setting.  Where F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby depicted in the story? Secondly the finding of significance of the conflicts in revealing the theme of the story and last the finding the theme of the story based on the setting in the conflict.
The finding of setting can be seen from the inn, the conditional of American, creating the modern and mythic reveals the particular physical location take place in Gatsby’s house.
Secondly the writer finds the significance of the conflicts in revealing the theme of story portrayed by recording of dialogue, arguments and the symbolical scenes such as how Gatsby if after he met daisy after five years in different condition. Daisy was getting married to Thom Buchanan. Gatsby and Daisy loved each other when they were in Louisville. Gatsby had a dream to come back with Daisy even though she was Tom’s wife.
Tom knows Daisy has affair with Gatsby. Colossal argument happens. Daisy was angry and confused, had demanded to drive Gatsby’s car home with Gatsby beside her in front of gas station she hit Myrtle, Wilson’s wife. In another day Tom said to Wilson that the car that hit wife is Gatsby’s car. Social conflict happened Gatsby shot by Wilson suicide with his gun.
The theme of the story is a complicated love story with world war and modern middle west life as the setting. In this novel Gatsby a man can do anything to get his goal, especially of Daisy’s love. Certainly he influenced another character to help him reaching his goal, for example he asked for Nick to phone Daisy to come his house because Nick was Daisy’s cousin. Another example, after Gatsby met Daisy, he forced her to divorce with her husband, Tom Buchanan, but actually that is not happened.
After analyzing the novel the writer concludes that the theme of the novel is a complicated love story with world war and modern middle west life as the setting. She draws it from analyzing the conflict and the setting. She founds that the conflict of this novel are the conflicts are conflicts of man against himself, and conflict a man against man. All the conflicts are discussed in detail and supported quotations taken from the novel. That is this conflict is conflict between Gatsby failed to understand Nick so he introduced himself to Nick again. Nick surprised because he knew Gatsby before, as it is citied in the following quotation. All night after George Wilson at in state of shock, weeping. By morning he had determined to punish the driver of yellow car. He made his way to Tom’s house. But Tom, fearing for his own  life, lied, and told the distressed Wilson that Gatsby had been Myrtle’s secret lover and he was the owner of the yellow car and the setting are Gatsby’s house, Gatsby’s enormous garden.
5.2.    Suggestion
    In this skripsi the researcher suggests especially the English student of UNIROW Tuban to enjoy reading literary work to broaden language vocabulary, cultural knowledge and to get profitable life teaching and message, which is presented, in the story. By reading literary works it can also broaden deepen and sharpen our awareness of life.
    The researcher suggests her junior to be more active in discussing literary works and improve their skill of English by reading them as there are many interesting aspect need to be discussed and evaluated and she invites them to discuss literary work such as novel, poem, drama or short story as the topic of their skripsi.
    Furthermore, she also suggests that choosing literary works as subject of observation, because the students are really interested in it and want to deepen their knowledge about literature. By reading literary works it can also hopes that we are able to do anything to get our dream especially love. As human beings we must have a wish and hope even though our dream takes us but only God decides the result.







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